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#sanctum_english-500
                    ➖Use of the wrong tense➖

111. Using the past simple tense after to + the infinitive.

✖️Don't say: He tried to kicked the ball away.

✔️Say: He tried to kick the ball away.

Don t use the simple past tense after to. 



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

112. Using the past simple tense after an auxiliary verb, instead of the past participle.

✖️Don't say: I've forgot to bring my book.

✔️Say: I've forgotten to bring my book.

Use the past paiticiple (and not the past tense) with the auxiliary verb "have" and its parts. 



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

113. Using "must" or "ought to" to express a past obligation.

✖️Don't say: You ought to come yesterday.

✔️Say: You ought to have come yesterday.
Or: You should have come yesterday.

Don't use "must" and "ought to" as past tenses.
To express a past duty (which wasn't done) use the perfect infinitive without to after "ought to" or "should", or expressions such as "had to", "was obliged to".

Note: In indirect speech use "must" and "ought to" as past tenses: He said he must do it. 


➖Use of the wrong tense➖

114. Using the present perfect instead of the simple past tense.

✖️Don't say: I have seen a good film yesterday.

✔️Say: I saw a good film yesterday.

Use the simple past tense (and not the present perfect) for an action completed in the past at a stated time.

Note: When a sentence has a word or a phrase denoting past time, like yesterday, last night, last week, last year, then, ago, etc., always use a simple past tense.  



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

115. Using the simple past tense instead of the present perfect.

✖️Don't say: I saw the Parthenon of Athens.

✔️Say: I have seen the Parthenon of Athens.

If we are speaking of the result of a past action rather than of the action itself, we must use the present perfect tense. When somebody says, I have seen Parthenon, he or she is not thinking so much of the past act of seeing it, as of the present result of that past action.  



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

116. Using the simple past tense with a recent action, instead of the present perfect.

✖️Don't say: The clock struck.

✔️Say: The clock has struck.

If we're speaking of an action just finished, we must use the present perfect instead of the simple past tense. For example, immediately after the clock strikes, we shouldn't say: The clock struck, but The dock has struck.  



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

117. Using the simple present instead of the present perfect.

✖️Don't say: I'm at this school two years.

✔️Say: I've been at this school two years.

Use the present perfect (and not the simple present) for an action begun in the past and continuing into the present. I've been at this school two years means I'm still here.  



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

118. Using the simple present instead of the present perfect after a since clause of time.

Don't say: Since he came, we're happy.

Say: Since he came, we've been happy.

The verb after a since clause of time is generally in the present perfect tense.



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

119. Using the simple present instead of the present continuous.

✖️Don't say: Look! Two boys fight.

✔️Say: Look! Two boys are fighting.

Note: We also use the present continuous for the future when something is pre-arranged or expected with some certainty: Lorna is arriving tomorrow at six. Tom and I are eating out tonight



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

120. The continuous form of the tense misused.

✖️Don't say: I'm understanding the lesson now.

✔️Say: I understand the lesson now.

As a rule, verbs denoting a state rather than an act have no continuous forms, like understand, know, believe, like, love, belong, prefer, consist, mean, hear, see. etc.
                
#sanctum_english-494
                    WIDOW = woman 👩 whose spouse has died

WIDOWER = man 👨 whose spouse has died

DOWAGER = widow 👩 holding property 🏡🏢 from her dead spouse

vocabulary
                
#sanctum_english-493
                    ❤️[Heart]❤️

1-It would break my mother's heart to leave Saudi Arabia and work in the USA.
(break her heart = make her extremely sad)

2-I left the country with a heavy heart.
(a heavy heart = great sadness).

3-I loved my country with all my heart and soul.
(With heart and soul = very much; completely)

4-I am a man with a heart of gold.
(Heart of gold = very kind character)

5-I can still recite the poems I learned by heart at school.
(by heart = in such a way that I can say it from memory)

6-I haven't got a heart of stone.
(Heart of stone = very cruel character).

7-My heart was in my boots as I waited for news of the accident.
(sb's heart is in his/her boots = feel sad or worried)

8-Now, don't lose heart. Keep trying. 
(Lose heart = lose courage or confidence)

9-I hope that you will take heart from what I told you today. 
(take heart = feel encouraged)
                
#sanctum_english-486
                    ➖Misuse of the infinitive➖

101. It's no good + -ing.

✖️Don't say: It's no good to get angry.

✔️Say: It's no good getting angry. 



➖Misuse of the infinitive➖

102. Look forward to + -ing.

✖️Don't say: I look forward to see him soon.

✔️Say: I look forward to seeing him soon. 



➖Misuse of the infinitive➖

103. There is no harm in + -ing.

✖️Don't say: There's no harm to visit her now.

✔️Say: There's no harm in visiting her now.  



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

104. Using the past tense after did instead of the infinitive without to.

(a) To ask questions:

✖️Don't say: Did you went to school yesterday?

✔️Say: Did you go to school yesterday?

(b) To make negatives:

✖️Don't say: I did not went to school yesterday.

✔️Say: I did not go to school yesterday.

Use the present infinitive without to, not the past tense after the auxiliary did.

Note: the answer to a question beginning with did is always in the past tense:
Did you see the picture?
-Yes. I saw the picture; or Yes, I did. 



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

105. Using the third person singular after does instead of the infinitive without to.

(a) To ask questions:

✖️Don't say: Does the gardener waters the flowers?

✔️Say: Does the gardener water the flowers?

(b) To make negatives:

✖️Don't say: The man doesn't waters the flowers.

✔️Say: The man doesn't water the flowers.

After the auxiliary does use the infinitive without to, and not the third person of the present.

Note: the answer to a question beginning with does is always in the present tense, third person:
Does he like the cinema?
- Yes, he flkes the cinema, or Yes, he does.  



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

106. Using the third person singular after can, must, etc., instead of the infinitive without to.

✖️Don't say: Ian can speaks English very well.

✔️Say: Ian can speak English very well.

After the verbs can, must, may, shall, and will, use the infinitive without to, and not the third person of the present.   



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

107. Wrong sequence of tenses.

✖️Don't say: Rachel asked me what I am doing.

✔️Say: Rachel asked me what I was doing.

When the verb in the main clause is in the past tense, use a past tense in subordinate clauses. 

Note: This rule doesn't apply: 
(1) to verbs within quotations
(2) to facts that are true at all times

We say:
1. She said, 'I am waiting for your answer'. 
2. He said that London is a great city.    



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

108. Using will/'ll instead of would/'d in a subordinate clause.

✖️Don't say: He said (that) he will/'ll come tomorrow.

✔️Say: He said (that) he would/'d come tomorrow.

Will/'ll changes to would/'d in subordinate clauses, when the verb in the main clause is in a past tense.  



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

109. Using may instead of might in a subordinate clause.

✖️Don't say: Last Sunday Ailsa told me that she may come.

✔️Say: Last Sunday Ailsa told me that she might come.

May changes to might in subordinate clauses, when the verb in the main clause is in the past simple tense.

Note: The conjunction "that" is never preceded by a comma. 



➖Use of the wrong tense➖

110. Using can instead of could in a subordinate clause.

✖️Don't say: Ben thought he can win the prize.

✔️Say: Ben thought he could win the prize.

Can changes to could in subordinate clauses, when the verb in the main clause is in the past simple tense.