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Remember to look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Try to make sense of what you see and...

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#ethiocosmos-2032
                    NASA sets new date for James Webb Space Telescope launch

The observatory is set to launch on December 18th

The James Webb Space Telescope, humanity’s next big space-bound eye on the cosmos, has a new launch date of December 18th, NASA announced on Wednesday. It’s the latest among dozens of other delays for a telescope that was originally planned to go to space as early as 2007.

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#ethiocosmos-2031
                    First direct image of another ‘solar system’
 
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#ethiocosmos-2030
                    Water is discovered for the first time in the atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet
 The researchers first detected water vapor in the atmosphere of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, the size of Neptune.  It is the smallest planet outside the Solar System to have these conditions.
 With a radius four times that of our planet and located in the constellation Swan, 124 light years away (each light year is equivalent to 9.46 trillion kilometers), HAT-P-11b has a layer of clouds over it. its cold and gaseous surface that allowed the analysis of the composition of its atmosphere and revealed the presence of water.
 The clear atmosphere of HAT-P-11b, however, revealed, in addition to water vapor molecules, hydrogen and traces of heavy atoms as well.
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 Planet HAT-P-11b, which has a radius four times that of Earth and is located in the constellation Swan, 122 light years away (each light year equals 9.46 trillion kilometers) David A. Aguilar
                
#ethiocosmos-2029
                    Orbits of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids
Are asteroids dangerous? Some are, but the likelihood of a dangerous asteroid striking the Earth during any given year is low. Because some past mass extinction events have been linked to asteroid impacts, however, humanity has made it a priority to find and catalog those asteroids that may one day affect life on Earth. Pictured here are the orbits of the over 1,000 known Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). These documented tumbling boulders of rock and ice are over 140 meters across and will pass within 7.5 million kilometers of Earth -- about 20 times the distance to the Moon. Although none of them will strike the Earth in the next 100 years -- not all PHAs have been discovered, and past 100 years, many orbits become hard to predict. Were an asteroid of this size to impact the Earth, it could raise dangerous tsunamis, for example. To investigate Earth-saving strategies, NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is planned for launch later this year. Of course rocks and ice bits of much smaller size strike the Earth every day, usually pose no danger, and sometimes creating memorable fireball and meteor displays.
Image Copyright: Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech
                
#ethiocosmos-2027
                    The largest star ever discovered is  Stephenson 2-18 (St2-18), also known as Stephenson 2 DFK 1 or RSGC2-18

Is a red supergiant or red hypergiant star in the constellation of Scutum. It lies near the open cluster Stephenson 2, which is located about 20,000 ly away from Earth in the Scutum Centaurus Arm of the Milky Way galaxy, and is assumed to be one of a group of stars at a similar distance. It is among the largest known stars, and one of the most luminous red supergiants, with an estimated radius around 2,150 times that of the Sun (R☉), which corresponds to a volume nearly 10 billion times that of the Sun. If placed at the center of the Solar System, its photosphere could potentially engulf the orbit of Saturn.
                
#ethiocosmos-2026
                    UY Scuti the largest depend on the question discovered, 1,700 times larger than the sun

The sun may appear to be the largest star in the sky but that's just because it's the closest. On a stellar scale, it's really quite average about half of the known stars are larger; half are smaller. The largest known star in the universe is UY Scuti, a hypergiant with a radius around 1,700 times larger than the sun. And it's not alone in dwarfing Earth's dominant star.  

In 1860, German astronomers at the Bonn Observatory first cataloged UY Scuti, naming it BD -12 5055. During a second detection, the astronomers realized it grows brighter and dimmer over a 740-day period, leading astronomers to classify it as a variable star. The star lies near the center of the Milky Way, roughly 9,500 light-years away.
Located in the constellation Scutum, UY Scuti is a hypergiant, the classification that comes after supergiant, which itself comes after giant. Hypergiants are rare stars that shine very brightly.

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#ethiocosmos-2024
                    ITER: The Way for a better Future
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ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is an international project where 35 nations including India, China, the European unions, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States are collaborating to build the world's largest tokamak, a fusion device with a powerful magnetic field that has been designed to prove the chance of fusion as a carbon free source of huge energy based on the same principle of our sun and stars. The aim is to produce a ten-fold return of net energy (Q=10, i.e. 500 MW fusion power from 50MW input heating power) where the world record for fusion power is 16MW from a total input of 24MW heating power (Q=0.67).

In Latin, the word ‘iter’ means “the way”. The way is the way for a better future. Nowadays most of the scientists worry about the energy crisis for future generations as we have a limited amount of energy sources provided by the nature itself and it will end one day and this is not too far. There are so many renewable energy sources like solar panel, solar thermal, wind energy, advanced bio fuel, geothermal etc. are proposed by the scientists but they are not sufficient. There is also nuclear fission reactors as a source of energy but it has risk for nuclear accidents, and not pollution less at all with the long lasting nuclear wastes and causes for global warming also. To this problem, the modern physics and technology suggest us the nuclear fusion process that will be the source of large-scale energy source in future on the earth.

As we know fusion is the energy sources of our sun and stars and the sun has been radiating energy from a grand old age and still we don't know how many years it will in the same way. Nuclear fusion is a process where two or more light nuclei fuse together to generate a relatively heavier nucleus in which there is some mass deficiency that is released as energy. But as easy to say, the is not easy so much. One of the most challenging problems is to achieve fusion in a laboratory: very high temperature (on the order of 150,000,000° Celsius), at extreme temperatures, electrons are separated from nuclei and a gas becomes a plasma—often referred to as the fourth state of matter. To solve the problem and to remove instability, scientists of various fields have designed a 'Tokamak' (a Russian acronym for toroidal chamber with an axial powerful magnetic fields that are used to confine and control the plasma).

The main part of the tokamak is its doughnut like vacuum chamber where the charged particles of the plasma can be shaped and controlled by the massive magnetic coils placed around the vessel walls. As the fusion process goes on, there 80% of energy produced is carried away from the plasma by the neutron, having no electrical charge neutrons are unaffected by magnetic fields, and will be absorbed by the surrounding walls of the tokamak, where their kinetic energy will be transformed as heat. Immediately the heat will be captured by cooling water circulating in the vessel walls and the heat will be used to produce steam and then electricity using steam turbines and alternators.

ITER will be the first fusion device to produce large-scale net energy for long period of time. ITER's first Plasma experiment is scheduled for December 2025.

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#ethiocosmos-2022
                    Pluto will complete its first orbit around the sun since its discovery on March 23rd, 2178
                
#ethiocosmos-2021
                    Approximately every 200,000 years, the Earth's magnetic field switches polarity, with North becoming South and South becoming North
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#ethiocosmos-2020
                    AFRICA IS SLOWLY BREAKING INTO TWO CONTINENTS!

The continent of Africa is splitting into two parts due to a geological divide. The noticeable crack appeared in Kenya, giving rise to discussion on the division of Africa into two land masses. The crack is now slowly growing in size due to natural factors like rainfall. It is believed that the crack has been formed due to the ceaseless breakup of the African continent and an underlying superheated crest.

The East African Rift Valley stretches over 3,000km from the Gulf of Aden in the north towards Zimbabwe in the south, splitting the African plate into two unequal parts: the Somali and Nubian plates. Activity along the eastern branch of the rift valley, running along Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania.

Not all of these fractures formed at the same time, but followed a sequence starting in the Afar region in northern Ethiopia at around 30m years ago and propagating southwards towards Zimbabwe at a mean rate of between 2.5-5cm a year.

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#ethiocosmos-2019
                    Helix nebula with the white dwarf in the middle, is a planetary nebula that lies 650light-years away in the constellation of Aquarius. Our sun too, will blossom into a planetary nebula when it dies in about five billion years.

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#ethiocosmos-2017
                    Earth could eventually have 1,000-hour days in about 50 billion years.
                
#ethiocosmos-2016
                    Jumping into different planet
                
#ethiocosmos-2013
                    Cygnus X-1: The black hole that started it all

Cygnus X-1 was first discovered when a pair of Geiger counters were blasted high into the atmosphere aboard a sub-orbital rocket. The Geiger counters picked up a signal that scientists were able to trace back to a system containing a blue supergiant star orbiting another massive object some 7,200 light-years away. The second object, they determined, was also strongly radiating X-rays, which would make sense if it were a black hole.

Since its discovery in 1964, Cygnus X-1 has been the focus of numerous studies. But, as it turns out, the world’s first black hole isn’t done surprising physicists just yet.

A recent study, revealed the black hole is actually 21 solar masses. This makes the object the largest stellar-mass black hole ever discovered without the use of gravitational waves. And according to the researchers, this new measurement challenges astronomers’ understanding of how black holes form.
                
#ethiocosmos-2012
                    This interstellar lightsaber battle is actually a galaxy cluster. But the data it expels are still from a long, long time ago—and just reaching us—and far, far away.

Located about 4.3 billion light-years from Earth, MACS J0717 is one of the most complex and distorted galaxy clusters known. In fact, it’s the site of a collision between four clusters. The data was collected using three telescopes: Chandra X-ray Observatory (diffuse emission in blue), Hubble Space Telescope (red, green, and blue), and National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (pink). 

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#ethiocosmos-2011
                    #Magnetar
A Magnetar is an ultra-powerful neutron star and can generate the most intense magnetic field observed in the Universe. Releases large amounts of gamma rays. The field strength of a magnetar is a thousand trillion times stronger than that of Earth and can reach surface temperatures of 18 million degrees. The magnetars are about 20 kilometers in diameter and their density is so strong that a tablespoon of their substance would have a mass of over 100 million tons. So far, astronomers have confirmed only about a dozen magnetars in our galaxy.

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